Last Update May 25, 2015


SUGIURA Junkichi, Ph.D
Social Psychologist

Keio University

Gaming simulation to analyze actions for dealing with environmental risks (You Tube)

Key Words: environmental education, green consumerism, persuasive communication, commitment, gaming & simulation, citizen's participation, consensus building



Sugiura,J. (2003) Social Psychology of Environmental Consideration. Nakanishiya Shuppan (Kyoto, Japan) ISBN4-88848-764-2 (In Japanese) This publication was partially supported by "Japan Society for the Promotion of Science" for Publication of Scientific Research Results.

Chapter of Book

Sugiura,J. (2005) Tac dung cua su truyen ba thong tin va su cam ket mang tinh hanh vi doi voi danh gia cua dan chung ve he thong tai su dung rac thai (The effects of informational exposure and behavioral commitment on residents' evaluations of the recycling system) "Ung Dung Tam Ly Hoc tai Nhat Ban"iApplications of Psychology in Japanj In Vu.D., Ito,T., Phan,T.M.H., & Yamamoto,T.(eds), 2005, , (pp.153-168).Hanoi: Nha Xuat Ban Tu Dien Bach KhoaiHanoi: Encyclopedia Publishing Housejiin VietnamesejOriginal Manuscript in English(PDF)


Sugiura, J., & Motosu, M. (2013) Effect of role playing on persuasion :Comparison between German and Japan Using Settoku-Nattoku game. The Japanese Journal of Persuasion and Negotiation, 5, 15-28.(In Japanese with English Abstract)

By using the persuasion game gSETTOKU-NATTOKUh (Sugiura, 2003), this study clarifies the effects of playing the roles of the persuader and, consequently, the one being persuaded by others about specific issues on behavioral intention regarding environment. This game has been originally designed in terms of commitment to the content of persuasion and being persuaded. In this game, players develop their own ideas about a specific issue (e.g., gmethods for saving energyh) and are assigned either role, i.e., those who persuade (persuader) or are being persuaded (persuaded). A total of 84 Japanese and German university students participated in one of the games. As a result, for Japanese, the determinants of behavioral intention (BI) were both the evaluation of consistency between actual behavior and the contents of persuasion and the evaluation of acquired new knowledge about behavior. For Germans, on the other hand, the determinant of BI was the evaluation of role playing. Possibility of elaboration of the acquired new knowledge was discussed.

Ando, K., Ohnuma, S., Bloebaum, Matthies, E., Sugiura, J. (2010) Determinants of individual and collective pro-environemntal behavior: Compareing Germany and Japan. Journal of Environmental Information Science, 38(5), 21-32. (2010, March)

The current study explored the determinants of individual and collective pro-environmental behaviors in Germany and Japan. A self report questionnaire was sent two randamsample respondents by mail in Cologne, Germany (N=996) and Nagoya, Japan (N=531). Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated an interaction between country of respondent and both individual and collective behaviors. For individual behavior, subjective norms played an important role in Japan where interpersonal relationship is emphasized, whereas percieved behaviorl control played an important role in Germany. Social factors, such as the amount of network and subjective norms, affected collective pro-envirnmental behaviors in both samples. The results highlighted the importance of social factors in studies of collective pro-environmental behaviors.

Sugiura, J. & Kikkawa, T. (2009) Introduction of the environmental policy game gKEEP COOLh for education and its evaluation :from the perspective of facilitators and players, Simulation & Gaming, 19(1), 87-99. (In Japanese)

In this study, "KEEP COOL," which is a board game based on the theme of global warming, is investigated as a case study. Evaluations of gaming experience included the evaluations by players, and by facilitators as well, who have experienced the game beforehand. Evaluation of the game was divided in three processes: evaluation at the time of introduction, determination of introduction and preparation, and practice evaluation. Moreover, preparation was made for an exercise for an experienced game player to introduce the game under a different situation. The evaluation criteria and practice method for the experienced game player were examined to evaluate the subject of the study situation. Furthermore, the study argued about the case of technique regarding evaluation of game experience during and after implementation of a game. As mentioned above, it was suggested that the meaning of a game and the point of evaluation are decided on the basis of the evaluation criterion of game experience of the facilitators.

Sugiura,J., (2007) Development of lerning material about a wicked business using SNG. Journal of Japan Academy of Consumer Education Vol.27, 113-122. (In Japanese)

Sugiura,J.,(2006) Development of "ICHIBA" as a Game of Idea Contrast. Studies in Simulation & Gaming, 16(2),105-115. (In Japanese with English Abstract)

The purpose of this study is to develop a game of opinion contrast named "ICHIBA" which means market place in Japanese. "ICHIBA" also express the acronym of the following phrase: "Interpersonal Comparison for Horizontal Integration by Border Awareness". The procedure of this game is as follows: 1)List the most impressive idea about the given theme. 2) Wlak around as if you were in "marketplace"(Kriz, 2006) and find the partner to whom you talk.. 3) Explain and compere the idea with each other. 4) if each idea is alike, be together to each other. 5) Furthermore, try and find a person or group with the similar idea. 6) If you couldn't fined the similar person, you are to be alone. 7) If other persons' idea is pleasing from that of you, you can change the idea and can become together with them. In this study, this simple game is discussed as a technique for reflection.

Sugiura,J., Kikkawa, T., Suzuki, A. (2006) Development of "SNG: SALES" as a Negotiation Game. Studies in Simulation & Gaming, 16(1), 49-61. (In Japanese)

The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a negotiation game which simulates sales situations by modification of the persuation game named "SETTOKU NATTOKU GAME" (hereafter abbreviated SNG; Sugiura, 2003), which was originally developed as a tool for environmental education. Settoku measn 'persuade' and Nattoku means 'be convinced' in Japanese. This new variation, called "SNG: SALES", andd also the original SNG, consist of three phases. In the first phase, players develop ideas of articles of commerce such as umbrellas or glasses on an individual basis. In the second phase, they are assigned either of two roles, i.e., seller or buyer. Sellers are required to sell as many articles as possible which they devised within the time limit, while buyers are required to buy articles they want wisely witha limited amount of money. In the third phase, player change their roles of sellers and buyers. University students participated in the game as players, and the evaluations of the game were satisfactory. The authors also discussed possibilities of the SNG as a frame game for consumereducation and negotiation sikill training.

Maeda, H., Hirose, Y., Sugiura, J., Yagishita, M., Matsuno, S.(2005) Participants' evaluation of a citizen panel conference by their empowerment............

Sugiura,J. (2005) Environmental education using Persuasion Game and its transferability. Japanese Psychological Review, Vol.48, No.1, 139-154. (In Japanese with English Abstract)

Persuasion Game (Sugiura, 2003) is a game in which the players are separated into two roles, i.e., the players who persuade (Persuader) and the players who are persuaded (Persuaded), then repeat interactions on the issue that need to be persuaded are repeated. When the Persuaded is satisfied by the repeated persuasion, he/she is to sign his/her name on a card carried by the Persuader has, on which the idea is noted. The rules of this game are interpreted in this paper. The original game was developed for the purpose of the environmental education. This Game has been used to examine the transferability as a Frame Game. One is a game that could be applied to educational programs for those in professional positions requiring them to send persuasive communications. The Game was used to train of the administrative staff members. Participants played both of the roles of the citizen's role and that of the administrative staff member to facilitate understanding of the conflict between the citizen and the administration. The attention in the use of this game is shown at the end of the paper.

Yorifuji, K., Hirose, Y., Sugiura,J., Ohnuma, S., Hagiwara, Y. (2005) Effects of prior voluntary recycling on social acceptance of mandatory resource separation system. Journal of the Japan Society of Waste Management Experts, 16, 55-64. (In Japanese with English Abstract)

This study examined how prior voluntary recycling systems affect the social acceptance of a new mandatory recycling/resource separation system. We hypothesized that social acceptance of the new system was based on an outcome evaluation of social benefit and individual cost, as well as fairness evaluations of procedure and distributive justice. A social survey was conducted in Nagoya City to compare residents' evaluation of the system for the area with voluntary recycling and the area without. The respondents in each of the areas were selected by a systematic random sampling. The main results were as follows: 1) Residents in the area with voluntary recycling evaluated the social benefits, individual costs, and procedural fairness of the new mandatory system more positively than those in the area without voluntary recycling; 2) More of the residents with voluntary recycling experience were committed to recycling activities and expected their neighbors' cooperation for the new system, also more of these residents participated in local meetings regarding communication of recycling methods than those without; 3) Those residents who held a commitment to recycling, expected neighbor cooperation, and who participated in recycling meetings had positive evaluation for outcome and fairness. We argued for the importance of volunteer participation, and cooperation between the administration and volunteers, where the introduction of a mandatory system is concerned.

Ohnuma, S., Hirose, Y. Karasawa, K., Yorifuji, K. & Sugiura,J. (2005) Why do residents accept a demanding rule: Fairness and social benefit as determinants of approval of a recycling system. Japanese Psychological Research, Vol. 47, No.1, 1-11. Link

This study examined why people accepted a demanding rule in a recycling system that was newly introduced in Nagoya City. We focused on two social psychological topics: social dilemmas and fairness. While the new system succeeded in reducing waste, it imposed a burden on citizens without providing incentives and sanctions. In a research survey, 1442 responses from a sample of 3000 (48% response rate) were obtained using a stratified sampling method. The results showed that the new recycling system was approved despite the demands placed on citizens, with a preference for more strict rules such as penalties and surveillance for noncompliance. The main determinants of approval of the new recycling system were social benefit and procedural fairness, whereas the main determinant of preference for strict rules was outcome fairness. We argue that (a) social benefit should be emphasized to facilitate cooperative behavior in a social dilemma situation and (b) the government should ensure sufficient discussion with citizens and acknowledgment of their opinions.

Maeda, H., Hirose, Y., Ando, K., Sugiura,J., Yorifuji, K. (2004) Environmental volunteer's recycling activities and empowerment: Competence, solidarity, and collective efficacy enhances volunteers' intentions to participate in further activities. Journal of the Japan Society of Waste Management Experts, 15(5), 398-407. (In Japanese with English Abstract)

The present study explored the effects of commitment to volunteer environmental activities on empowerment and intention to participate in further volunteer activities. A survey of 378 volunteer members was conducted in two cities in which the municipal administrations had introduced a new recycling system. Main results of the survey were the following. The commitment enhanced both individual empowerment and collective empowerment. The effect of commitment to volunteer activities on intention was mediated by the acquired empowerment. Collective empowerment (efficacy to community change) and individual empowerment (solidarity) were the main determinants of their intention to participate in further voluntary activities.

Hirose, Y. Sugiura,J, Shimomoto, K. (2004) Simulation game of industrial wastes management and its educational effect. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, Vol .6, No.1, 58-63.

The purposes of this study were to develop the Industrial Waste Game and to examine the validity of this game as a tool for environmental education. The aim of this game is to enable players to understand the social dilemma between individual interest of hazardous dumping and the social cost of purifying pollution, and to find a solution to the social dilemma by providing the monitoring and sanction system for illegal dumping or other efficient systems. The game was played by 213 undergraduate students who were divided into 40 groups of 5 to 6 people. One of 4 combinations of monitoring and penalty conditions was assigned to each group. The players were asked to answer questionnaires concerning their interests and understanding of the industrial waste issue before and after the game to evaluate educational effects. The results indicated that the players increased their awareness of industrial waste problems and came to understand that these problems were caused not by psychological factors such as immorality of the illegal dumper but mainly by social structural factors like the social dilemma. Through playing the game and participating in post-game discussion, players were able to obtain interesting experience and gain motivation to learn more.Link

Sugiura,J. (2003) gPersuasion Gameh as a tool for environmental education : Development, practice and improvement. Studies in Simulation & Gaming, 13(1), 3-13 (In Japanese) Award-winning Paper by Japan Association of Simulation And Gaming (JASAG)

Sugiura,J Nonami, H., & Hirose, Y. (1999) The effects of informational exposure and behavioral commitment on residents' evaluations of the new waste new system: An environmental and social psychological approach. Journal of the Japan Society of Waste Management Experts, 10, 87-96. (In Japanese with English Abstract)Award-winning Paper by Japan Society of Waste Management Experts (JSWME)

The purpose of this study is to investigate how residents changed their evaluation of a new collection system of strict separation between recyclable and non-recyclable materials. The new system was introduced to three areas successively over 15 months. The social survey was conducted as a quasi-experiment to compare residents' evaluations of three areas before and after the system's introduction. Each group of 210 respondents were selected from one area before the introduction and two areas after the introduction.
The main results were as follows. The general evaluation of the collection system became more positive after the introduction. Before introduction of new system, residents, who read the town newsletters and participated in a special neighborhood meeting, evaluated the social benefits of the new system more positively. After introduction, the residents, who now had a behavioral commitment to the new system, evaluated the personal costs of the system more positively.

Sugiura,J. (1998) The Effect of Persuasive Message and Its Source on Acceptance of Environment Conscious Behavior The Japanese Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 39-47.(In Japanese with English Abstract)

This study compared persuasive effects of pro-environmental or economical messages through the source of environmental NPO, telephone company, or a personal friend as interpersonal network. Specifically, which aspects of social or individual benefits of subscription of ``ecology dial'' as environment conscious behavior should be emphasized in recommending to consumers? In Experiment, two different written messages (environment-oriented or economy-oriented) by Japan Ecology Center (environmental NPO), DDI (telephone company), or a personal friend were given to subjects who played the role of consumer. The results indicated that pro-environmental message had more persuasive effects than economy-oriented one, and that Japan Ecology Center had more impact than friend.

Sugiura,J Ohnuma, S. Nonami, H. Hirose, Y. (1998) Influences of environmental volunteer group's action on residents' cognition and behavior concerning curbside recycling Research in Social psychology, 13(2), 143-151.(In Japanese with English Abstract)

This study clarified informational and normative influences of environmental volunteer groups on residents' recycling attitudes and behaviors. In the first survey, 14 volunteer groups were categorized into two types based on their activity level and group size. High active groups collected cans and bottles from most part of their areas while low active groups collected from small part of their areas. In the second survey, a questionnaire was distributed to 180 residents from 3 different areas in which there were no volunteer group, low active groups, or high active groups. Attitude, social norm, perceived control, and behavior were compared among the 3 areas. As a result, attitudes toward recycling (evaluation of social benefit and personal benefit) did not differ in the 3 areas. But feasibility evaluation for recycling, social norm awareness and recycling behavior in the area of the high active group were more positive than other two areas.

Nonami, H., Sugiura,J, Ohnuma, S., Yamakawa, H., & Hirose, Y. (1997) The roles of various media in the decision making processes for recycling behavior: A path analysis model. The Japanese Journal of Psychology, 68, 264-271.(In Japanese with English Abstract)

This study researched the effects of cognitive variables on recycling behavior, as well as effects of various media of influence on the cognition and behavior. According to Hirose (1994), the decision making process for recycling consists of two steps. The first leads to goal intention of an ecological lifestyle. The second is related to behavior intention of recycling in line with the goal intention. Mass media, such as newspaper and TV, are thought to influence beliefs about environmental problems, including three determinants of goal intention: perception of seriousness, responsibility, and effectiveness. Personal media, such as personal contacts with pro-environmental activists, are thought to influence evaluation of behavior, including three determinants of behavior intention: evaluation of feasibility, cost and benefits, and social norms. Local media, such as municipal announcement and circular, are hypothesized to have a mixed effect of the two. Path analysis indicated that goal intention affected recycling behavior through behavior intention. Effects of the three media of influence on the cognitive variables were also consistent with the hypothesis.

Goto, T., Hanari, T., Ohnuma, S., Kobari, H., Shinoda, N., Sugiura,J., Tamoto,K., & Hishimua, Y., (1995) Effects of Grasping-form Attitude on Brightness Contrast in Koffka-Ring Type Patterns. Psychologia, 38(3), 192-198.

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of ggrasping-formh of non-annular test figure (TF) on simultaneous brightness contrast in Koffka-ring type patterns. As a consequence, the grasping-form attitudes seem to represent a kind of gimage-manipulationh by the observers, who may perceive configuration of the TF at various information-processing stages without being directly influenced by the TF appearance.


Ando,K., Hirose, Y., Sugiura, J., Ohunuma, S., Yorifuji, K, Ohtomo, S., Maeda, H., Blöbaum, A.,Matthies, E.. 2007 Comparing the hindrances of environmentally-conscious behaviors in Japan and Germany: A report of focus group meetings. (in Japanese)

Blöbaum, A., Klöckner, C.A., Matthies, E. Preißssner, C.L., Schulte, R. Johansson, M., Brazel, C., Ando, K. Hirose, Y., Ohnuma, S. & Sugiura, J., 2004. On the Genesis of Habits and Travel Mode Fixation - A Comparison of the Travel Mode Socialization in Germany, Japan and Sweden. Bericht aus der Fakultaet für Psychologie, AE Kognitions- und Umweltpsychologie Nr. 57/2004). Bochum: Ruhr-Universität, Fakultät für Psychologie.

Internatinal Conference

SUGIURA, J., 2004 Persuasion Game as a frame game International Simulation And Gaming Association(ISAGA2004) Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany.

Persuasion Game (Sugiura, 2003) is a game in which the players are separated into two roles, i.e., the players who persuade (Persuader) and the players who are persuaded (Persuaded), and repeat interactions on the issue that need to be persuaded. When the Persuaded is satisfied by the repeated persuasion, he/she is to sign his/her name on the card that the Persuader has, in which the idea is noted. The original game was developed for the purpose of the environmental education. This Game has been examined the expansibility of the game as a Frame Game. One is the game that could be applied to educational programs for those in professional position who have the role of the sender of persuasive communication. The Game was used by the training of the administrative staff member. A participant played both of the roles of the citizen's role and the administrative staff member. They could understand it about the conflict between the citizen and the administration. Another is the game of consumer education that deepens the understanding toward the behavior of persuasion by the consumer playing both roles of the Persuader and the Persuaded. A player could think about both sides of the rational consumption with the effective sales method by acting both the role of sales and the role of purchase. After all, it was developed the game as a program that correct the understanding towards non-specialists and asymmetry of communication by the role of the non-specialist refusing the suggestion of the role of the specialist with a reason. The outline of the persuasion game is appreciated at this colloquium through the experience of the game.

SUGIURA, J. 2003, Persuasive Communication on Environment Conscious Behavior, Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the International Simulation And Gaming Association(ISAGA), pp.1047-1051.Kazusa Akademia Park, Japan.

The persuasion game was developed as an environmental education program. It was Horsley's research that gave suggestions to the development of this game. Horsley (1977) requested geography students to play roles to persuade friends and family to take environment conscious behaviors. He also taught about environmental problems and knowledge of attitude change, and had the students give each other reports on the requested activity. As a result, the students in question began practicing environment conscious behavior in various situations. This means that the effect of role playing concerning persuasion of environment conscious behavior has been proven.
This is a simple game by dividing the group into two roles, the persuaders and the persuaded, and an interaction is repeated by the persuaders urging the other about environment conscious behavior to which the persuaded thinks about the reason and declines that persuasion. The persuaders think about how the other party can be persuaded, and the persuaded sign a promise to action when they are convinced of the persuasion. It is an application of the role playing technique to education in the diffusion of environment conscious behavior.
In the case of environmental education at universities, the participants were able to think about the issues of green consumerism, which they normally do not discuss very much. Concerning the contents of the game, it would be important to develop the debriefing process further as there were possibilities of justifying the behavior of not practicing environment conscious behavior by refusing a persuasion, and because of such comments stating how difficult it was that they had to refuse despite of their wish to accept.
With regard to the application to research, the findings suggested that persuasive communication relating to environment conscious behavior could be clarified by establishing the rules and conditions according to the purpose of the study. In the future, we would need to examine as to whether or not the persuasion of environment conscious behavior as role play would enhance the commitment of the persuaders toward environmental considerations, and lead to real action in everyday life.

SUGIURA, J. 2003, The Development of The Persuasion Game. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the International Simulation And Gaming Association(ISAGA), pp.713-722. Kazusa Akademia Park, Japan.

Persuasion Game is a game in which the players are separated into two roles, i.e., the players who persuade (Persuader) and the players who are persuaded (Persuaded), and repeat interactions on the issue that need to be persuaded. In other words, the Persuader is required to look for the Persuaded, tries to persuade and obtain a signature confirming the acceptance of the idea from as many players as possible. The Persuaded on the other hand, is required to turn down the Persuader's persuasion, giving "A reason for not being able to accept". When the Persuaded is satisfied by the repeated persuasion, he/she is to sign his/her name on the card that the Persuader has, in which the idea is noted. Though the original of this game was developed as an environmental education tool (Sugiura 2003), it is examined the expansibility of the game as a Frame Game. The Persuasion Game was created for understanding persuasion of environment conscious behavior through playing a game, as part of environmental education. In short, it was for the application of the role playing method (Horsley 1977) in education in the diffusion of environment conscious behavior.
In this paper, it was discussed the development of the game from the point of deepening the multi-dimensional understanding of the game by holding workshops, and getting the players to think about what the problems are in implementing the Persuasion Game. To the way in which this game gradually focuses on specific issues from undefined problems, another good way of playing the game would be to play the Persuasion Game after giving a lecture using the contents of the lecture. Moreover, it would be beneficial to develop the standard card, which matches current issues as an educational tool for points and problems that are already clear, such as measures for malicious business practice. The concept of the Persuasion Game is very simple yet it could be applied to various situations.

SUGIURA, J. 2002, Behavioral Commitment and Attitude Change.25‚”‚ˆ ICAP "Social Psychological Factors of Environment-Conservation Behavior"

What kinds of behavior have changed since the introduction of the new waste collection program? We examined the level of engagement by residents with various forms of 3R (reduce, reuse, and recycle) behaviors before and after the introduction of the new system. The relationship between the engagement and attitudes toward environmental issues was also analyzed. The results indicated that the attitude-behavior consistency was higher among the people who had engaged in 3R behavior before the implementation of the program. Potential effects of commitment on attitudes and behavior will be discussed.
By the program of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, I had been staying at the Ruhr-University Bochum in Germany from December 15, 2004 to September 30, 2005. A formal theme is as follows. "International research to promote the reform of teacher education in the domain of environmental education"
Memo in Germany

Press Reporting in Germany

personal memorandum of research interest, etc.

Waste Bin in the World

"The photograph of the Waste Bin in the world" is introduced. Photographs can be seen although explanation is Japanese.

Diary in Germany from December 15, 2004 to September 30, 2005
is in the domein of Waste Bin is in the domein of Green Consumism

Bochum Part1 @
Bochum Part2

Salzburg@July 17
Halle April 03-23
Münster Eco study tour February 16
Münster February 15-17
Dortmund February 12
Bielefeld@February 07-09
@February 03
January 26-28
December 31-January 02
Köln Decmber 23, February7